Fluency is at the centre of the National Curriculum for maths. In this context, “fluency” refers to knowing key mathematical facts and methods and recalling these efficiently. ... It is widely acknowledged that practice, drill and memorisation are essential if children are to become mathematically fluent.


Mathematical reasoning involves thinking through mathematical problems logically in order to arrive at solutions. It also involves being able to identify what is important and unimportant in solving a problem and to explain or justify a solution.

Problem Solving

Problem Solving in Mathematics encourages pupils to solve problems by identifying what mathematics is needed and how it should be used.

It allows pupils to make connections between different strands of mathematical knowledge and understanding to solve a problem.

Concrete, Pictorial and Abstract maths teaching:

The CPA method involves using actual objects for children to add, subtract, multiply or divide. They then progress to using pictorial representations of the object, and ultimately, abstract symbols.

Children often find maths difficult because it is abstract. The CPA approach helps children learn new ideas and build on their existing knowledge by introducing abstract concepts in a more familiar and tangible way.

At Kinderley, we use White Rose Maths to support our planning and assessment for maths.